Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common chronic condition among men aged 50 or older, causing voiding and obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms. Water vapor thermal therapy (WVTT) using the Rezūm® system is a new minimally invasive surgical technique that is increasingly reported as a treatment for BPH.
The protocol was submitted to the PROSPERO registry. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov up to July 29, 2022. Quality assessment was carried out by a 20-item checklist form prepared by the Institute of Health Economics (IHE). Double arcsine transformation was performed to stabilize the variance of the original ratio. When I2 > 50%, the random effect model was used to calculate the pooled parameters. Otherwise, the fixed effect model was used. 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A leave-one-out sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of each study on the pooled outcomes, and finally, Egger’s test was used to assess publication bias.
A total of seven single-arm observational studies and one random controlled trial, including 1015 patients, were included. One year after WVTT, the International Prostate Symptom Score decreased by 11.37 (95% CI: -12.53, -10.21), the IPSS Quality of Life scale decreased by 2.59 (95% CI: -2.92, -2.26), the maximum urine flow rate increased by 5.26 ml/s (95% CI: 4.53, 5.99), and the postvoid residual decreased by 13.18 ml (95% CI: -24.32, -2.03). The most common complication was dysuria, with a pooled incidence of 21% (95% CI: 14%, 29%), and the second most common complication was hematuria, with a pooled incidence of 14% (95% CI: 10%, 18%). The pooled incidence of retreatment was 3% (95% CI: 2%, 5%).
WVTT is an attractive alternative to medication or more invasive surgical procedures and can serve as first-line therapy for men with BPH.